Alejandra Torres Camprubí, Ph.D.


I represent sovereign States and help protect their interests in high-stakes inter-State disputes and international investment arbitration cases.

Alejandra Torres Camprubí exclusively represents sovereign States in public international law and international investment arbitration cases before the world’s principal dispute resolution bodies. She is admitted to practice in the Madrid Bar as well as the Paris Bar as an EU lawyer.

Alejandra represents sovereign States and State-owned entities, both in inter-State cases before the International Court of Justice and the International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea (in border disputes and cases involving violations of international humanitarian law and human rights law), and in arbitration proceedings administered by the International Center for the Settlement of Investment Disputes and the Permanent Court of Arbitration (in matters relating to the energy and aeronautical industries). 

From a research perspective, her areas of expertise include international environmental law, with a particular focus on climate change law and policy, and the interaction of this field with the international law of the sea and the law on statehood. Alejandra acted as legal counsel in the United Nations climate change negotiations and has recently been a post-doctoral research fellow at the Fridtjof Nansen Institute in Oslo, as part of an international and interdisciplinary project on the legal consequences of the Anthropocene for International Law. 

She has published in matters relating to loss of statehood due to sea-level rise, climate change and international security, and fairness in the international regime on climate change and has lectured on these topics in several universities and international organizations. She is also an active member of the ILA Committee on International Law and Sea-Level Rise.


  • Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Ph.D. (Summa cum laude)
  • University College London, LL.M. (Distinction)
  • Université Paris I-Panthéon-Sorbonne, Maîtrise en droit français/Bachelor in French Law (Mention Assez Bien)
  • Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Licenciatura en Derecho/Bachelor in Spanish Law (Sobresaliente)

Bar and Court Admissions

  • Madrid
  • Paris


Inter-State Disputes before the International Court Of Justice and the International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea
  • The Gambia v. Myanmar. Counsel to the Republic of The Gambia before the International Court of Justice in a lawsuit under the Genocide Convention seeking to hold Myanmar accountable under international law for genocide against the Rohingya.  
  • Democratic Republic of Congo v. Republic of Uganda. Member of the team representing Uganda before the International Court of Justice in the reparations phase related to the damages resulting from the armed activities carried out in the territory of the DRC.
  • Somalia v. Kenya. Member of the team representing Somalia before the International Court of Justice in a dispute with Kenya regarding the Parties' maritime boundary in the Indian Ocean. 
  • Switzerland v. Nigeria. Counsel to Nigeria before ITLOS for the provisional measures phase and before an UNCLOS Annex VII arbitral tribunal for the merits phase, in a dispute concerning the detention of a shipping vessel with Swiss flag in the exclusive economic zone of Nigeria. 
  • Republic of Ghana v. Republic of Côte d’Ivoire. Member of the team that represented Ghana in the case concerning the maritime boundary with Côte d’Ivoire in the Gulf of Guinea in an international Arbitration under Annex VII of the International Convention on the Law of the Sea before an ITLOS Special Chamber. 
International Investment Arbitration & Other Proceedings
  • Latin American Regional Aviation Holding v. Uruguay. Counsel to Uruguay (2020 – present) in an ICSID arbitration under the Panama-Uruguay Bilateral Investment Treaty, involving the collapse of Uruguay’s national airline, PLUNA.
  • Ritika Mehta, Vinita Agarwal, and Prenay Agarwal v. the Oriental Republic of Uruguay. Counsel to Uruguay (2018-2020) in an UNCITRAL arbitration administered by the PCA brought under the Uruguay-UK Bilateral Investment Treaty, involving a large-scale iron ore mining project, which the claimants alleged to be worth $3.47 billion. The tribunal unanimously denied jurisdiction and ordered claimant to pay Uruguay’s legal fees.
  • Niko Resources v. Republic of Bangladesh, Bapex & Petrobangla. Counsel to Bangladesh's two State entities in an ICSID case brought by a Canadian investor concerning the causes and impacts of two gas blowouts.
  • Louis Dreyfus Armateurs v. Republic of India. Member of the team representing India in an UNCITRAL Ad-Hoc Arbitration case brought by a French investor under the France-India Bilateral Investment Treaty arising from a contract concerning the supply and operation of cargo handling equipment.
  • Corporación Dominicana de Empresas Eléctricas Estatales (CDEEE). Represented the Corporación regarding claims presented by a consortium led by a Brazilian company related to the construction and operation of a thermoelectric plant. Member of the team in a parallel mediation process that managed to resolve the controversy and ensure the delivery of the plant in favorable conditions for our client.
  • Representation before the United States Office of Foreign Assets Control of a private person affected by the UN Security Council Sanctions Committee. 
  • Representation of asylum-seekers in France before the Cour Nationale du Droit d’Asile. Pro bono project in collaboration with Amnesty International France.

  • Post-doctoral Senior Fellow, Project ‘Climate Change and Sea-Level Rise in the Anthropocene: Challenges for International Law in the 21st Century’, Fridtjof Nansen Institute, (Oslo/Norway, 2014).
  • Teaching and Research Fellow in Public International Law, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, (Madrid/Spain, 2011 - 2013).
  • Institut de Droit international, Reporter for the 75th Rhodes Session (Rhodes/Greece, September 2011).
  • United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, 15th Conference of the Parties (COP.15/MOP.5), Legal counsel to the Delegation of East Timor (Copenhagen/Denmark, December 2009).


  • Statehood under Water: Challenges of Sea-Level Rise to the Continuity of Pacific Island States, Brill/Nijhoff (juin 2016). Monograph based on doctoral thesis belonging to the Series Legal Aspects on Sustainable Development, vol. 22, ISBN13: 9789004321601. 

Articles and Book Chapters
  • “Les impacts de l’élévation du niveau de la mer sur la sécurité internationale : une reconstruction du « récit sécuritaire » du changement climatique” (Pedone eds., forthcoming 2022).
  • “Legal and Political Considerations with respect to the Disappearance of States” (co-authored with Christina Hioureas), chapter to be published as part of the Proceedings of the International Conference New Knowledge and Changing Circumstances in the Law of the Sea (Law of the Sea Institute of Iceland, Reykjavik, Iceland, 28–30 June 2018) (Brill, 2020).
  • “Challenges of Sea-Level Rise to the Continuity of Low-Lying Island States and Measures to Address the Loss of Maritime Spaces”, Proceedings of the ASIL  112th Annual Meeting (Washington, D.C., 4-7 April 2018) (CUP, 2019).
  • “Commerce international et responsabilité sociale et environnementale: des référentiels aux normes?” (co-authored with D. Schimmel), chapter of the encyclopedic volume Le Lamy Contrats Internationaux (Wolters Kluwer, 2019), Tome 1, sections 101-104. 
  • “Securitization of Climate Change: the Inter-regional Institutional Voyage” Oxford Yearbook of International Environmental Law, (2018): pp. 1-24. 
  • “Sea Level Rise and Impacts on Maritime Zones and Limits: the Work of the ILA Committee on International Law and Sea Level Rise” (co-authored with David Freestone and Davor Vidas), Korean Journal of International and Comparative Law, vol. 5 (2017): 1, pp. 5-35.
  • ‘Against Fairness? International Environmental Law, Disciplinary Bias and Pareto Justice’, (co-authored with Mario Prost) Leiden Journal of International Law, vol. 25 (2012): issue 2, pp. 379-396.
  • 'Cambio climático y derechos humanos: el desafío de los nuevos refugiados’ [Climate Change and Human Rights: the Challenge of the ‘New Refugees’], (co-authored with Carlos Espósito Massiccic), (June 2011) Relaciones Internacionales (GERI-UAM), vol. 17 (June 2011). pp. 64- 87. Also reproduced in Revista de Derecho Ambiental de la Universidad de Palermo, vol. I (May 2012): issue 1, pp. 7-32.

Honors & Involvement

  • Doctoral Fellowship Formación de Personal Investigador, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, (Madrid/Spain, 2009-2013).
  • UCL Cheng-Cheng Nan Prize, best postgraduate public international law student (London/ UK, 2008/2009).
  • Bourse d’Excellence-Major, French Ministry of Foreign Affairs (Paris/France, 2004-2008).

  • European Society of International Law, co-founder and co-convenor of the ESIL Interest Group on International Environmental Law (2009-present). Member of the Interest Group on Feminism and International Law.
  • International Law Association (Spanish Branch), Member and Reporter of the Committee on International Law and Sea Level Rise.
  • American Society for International Law
  • African Society for International Law

Speaking Engagements

  • Podcast “Hablemos de Derecho Internacional”, Episode No. 77: “El naufragio de la estatalidad: los impactos del aumento del nivel del mar en la condición de Estado” [Sinking Statehood: the Impacts of Sea-Level Rise] (7 May 2022), available at:
  • Common European Law on Investment Screening (CELIS) Institute, Invited Speaker on “Delimiting the Concept of National Security”, as part of a wider workshop on “National Security as a Limit to Sovereign-Driven Investment” (2-3 December 2021) 
  • Diplomatic Academy of Vietnam (DAV) with the Konrad Adenauer Stiftung (KAS) office and The British Embassy in Hanoi, 7th Ocean Dialogue, Invited Speaker on “Securing the Continuity of Low-lying Island States through the Protection of their Maritime Entitlements: a Reflection on Latest Developments” (19 August 2021)
  • Centre de Droit Maritime et Océanique of Nantes University, Invited Speaker on “The impacts of Sea-Level rise on International Security” at the Conference titled “Élévation du niveau de la mer et droit international: de l’adaptation à l’action” [Sea-Level Rise in International Law: From Adaptation to Action], Faculty of Laws and Political Science of Nantes University (15 June 2021)
  • Permanent Mission of the Principality of Liechtenstein before the United Nations and Princeton University, Invited Speaker (with C. Hioureas) belonging to the Series “Climate, State and Sovereignty: Self-Determination and Sea-Level Rise,” (online session September – December 2020). 
  • Academy of European Law, invited Lecturer on “The Concept of Security: Reconstructing the Origins, Scope and Meaning of an Ambiguous Symbol” as part of the ERA High-Level Conference on Investment Screening in the European Union, (online session, 12-13 November 2020). 
  • Université Libre de Bruxelles, invited Lecturer on “International Law and the Climate Crisis” for post-graduate public international law students (online session, 27 October 2020).
  • Organization of American States (OAS), invited Lecturer on “La condición de Estado frente al desafío del cambio climático” [Statehood before the Climate Change Challenge], 2019 Edition of the Summer Couse on Public International Law organized by the Comité Jurídico Interamericano (Rio de Janeiro/Brasil, August 2019). 
  • International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea Nippon Programme, Lecture on “Climate Change and the Law of the Sea”, (Hambourg/Germany, 7 February 2019). 
  • Queen Mary University of London (Center for Small States) /Wilmerhale, “Dispute Resolution and Sinking Island States”, presentation at the Environmental Dispute Resolution and Small States Conference, (London/ UK, 6–7 September 2018). 
  • Law of the Sea Institute of Iceland, Presentation (with C. Hioureas) on “Legal and Political Considerations with respect to the Disappearance of States”, International Conference New Knowledge and Changing Circumstances in the Law of the Sea, (Reykjavik/Iceland, 28–30 June 2018). 
  • American Society for International Law, Presentation in Panel on “Rising Sea Levels and Disappearing Territories: Implications for Statehood, Migrants and International Law”, at the 112th Annual Meeting of the American Society of International Law (ASIL), International Law in Practice (Washington DC/ USA, 4–7 April 2018).
  • University of Groningen, ‘Sustainable Development Goals and Migration/’Environmental Refugees’, Summer Course of the International Institute for Social Studies, (Groningen/The Netherlands, July 2017).
  • University of East Anglia, ‘Statehood under Water’: An approach to Climate-Induced Displacement from the Perspective of the Law on Statehood,” (Norwich/UK, July 2016).